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Typology and seriation dating

Not all tree species are sufficiently sensitive to display distinctive variations in their ring characteristics, particularly when growing in temperate climates. Without doubt, it has made the greatest single contribution to the development of archaeology since geologists and prehistorians escaped from the constraints of historical chronology in the nineteenth century.

From any reference point its position is measurable in terms of two components: movement up or down (inclination or 'dip') and from side to side (declination). THE AUTHENTICITY OF ARTEFACTS When major museums buy items for their collections they become involved in expensive commercial dealings in the fine art market.

He described the purpose of classification as: Kreiger said of classification systems: "Considering the vast amount of time and thought put into them, is there any reason to believe that their groupings will help to discover the true historical meaning of the myriad works of man?

" According to Rouse (1960) classification is the ’act of assigning to a proper class’.

Tephrochronology thus provides a precise and well-established dating tool.’ (Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, Oxford) 4.5.9 Luminescence dating The physical phenomenon of luminescence may be used to date artefacts that were made from (or include) crystalline minerals which have been subjected to strong heating. If it is not affected in any way by its environment the result can be described as absolute.

The first successful application was to clay fired to make pottery, but it is commonly used now for dating flint tools that have been burnt, for example by being dropped accidentally into a fire. Electron spin resonance (ESR) Like thermoluminescence, ESR is a 'trapped charge' dating method, but it is applied to different kinds of samples, and the method of measurement is also different. In contrast, dating the change of one form of amino acid to another is derivative because the rate of alteration varies, and is heavily dependent on the temperature and humidity of the context where the sample has been buried. Protein and amino acid diagenesis dating Bones, teeth and shells contain proteins that break down after death, and the most commonly investigated products of decomposition are amino acids.

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