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Church councils summoned in 15 strengthened and systematized the church’s affairs, affirming its Orthodoxy and canonizing a large number of Russian saints.In 1549 the first was summoned to meet in an advisory capacity—this was a national assembly composed of boyars, clergy, and some elected representatives of the new service gentry.

The conditions of military service were improved, the armed forces were reorganized, and the system of command altered so that commanders were appointed on merit rather than simply by virtue of their noble birth.

The government also introduced extensive self-government, with district administrators elected by the local gentry.

On December 4, 1533, immediately after his father’s death, the three-year-old Ivan was proclaimed grand prince of Moscow.

His mother ruled in Ivan’s name until her death (allegedly by poison) in 1538.

One object of the reforms was to limit the powers of the hereditary aristocracy of princes and boyars (who held their estates on a hereditary basis) and promote the interests of the service gentry, who held their landed estates solely as compensation for service to the government and who were thus dependent on the tsar.

Ivan apparently aimed at forming a class of landed gentry that would owe everything to the sovereign.Trans is the fastest growing online Escort & hot new members every day !!Use our real time chat to check each other out and play before you meet ether you are independent Shemale Tgirls ,male members seeking out service provider, or a new provider on the site looking to take advantage of our many advertise opportunities !In 1556 the khanate of Astrakhan, located at the mouth of the Volga, was annexed without a fight.From that moment onward, the Volga became a Russian river, and the trade route to the Caspian Sea was rendered safe.I am 38 from Saginaw looking to find friends and see were it goes Just separated from my wife of 22 yrs so Dating is all new to me lol. I live alone and love it; I am intelligent, loyal, sincere, responsible, and a little silly in a positive way or so people say.I love being outdoors in the woods, Family time, and time to cuddle with a good mov.. I have a sick sense of humor with my friends and family but I know when to restrain myself. I am loving caring faithful open understanding passionate affectionate.All the reforms took place under the aegis of the so-called “Chosen Council,” an informal advisory body in which the leading figures were the tsar’s favourites Aleksey Adashev and the priest Silvestr.The council’s influence waned and then disappeared in the early 1560s, however, after the death of Ivan’s first wife and of Makari, by which time Ivan’s views and his entourage had changed. Russia was at war for the greater part of Ivan’s reign.Ivan was the son of Grand Prince Vasily III of Moscow and his second wife, Yelena Glinskaya.He was to become the penultimate representative of the Rurik dynasty.

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